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Stem-cell therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats: a comparison of three treatment modalities

Authors Sadat-Ali M, Al-Dakheel DA, AlMousa SA, AlAnii FM, Ebrahim WY, AlOmar HK, AlSayed HN, Acharya S, AlHawaj H

Received 4 February 2019

Accepted for publication 2 April 2019

Published 14 June 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 17—25


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Bernard Binetruy

Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Dakheel A Al-Dakheel,1 Sulaiman A AlMousa,1 Fawaz M AlAnii,1 Waleed Y Ebrahim,1 Hussain K AlOmar,1 Hasan N AlSayed,1 Sadananda Acharya,2 Hussain AlHawaj3

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; 2College of Public Health; 3Institute of Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Background: Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats can be reversed by infusion of osteoblasts cultured from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study compares the influence of MSCs, osteoblasts, and exosomes derived from osteoblasts for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in 40 female Sprague Dawley rats by performing ovariectomy. After 12 weeks, bone marrow was harvested and MSCs separated from bone-marrow aspirate as described by Piao et al. After 15 days, autologous osteogenically differentiated cells from the MSCs were available. Exosomes were isolated from osteoblasts by modification of the technique described by Ge et al. MSCs and osteoblasts (106 cells in 0.5 mL normal saline) and exosomes (100 μg protein) were injected into the tail veins of the animals. Animals were euthanized after 12 weeks and femurs and lumbar spines dissected and analyzed using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography.
Results: When compared to the control group, osteoblast-treated animals showed significant differences in all parameters compared, with P-values ranging between <0.002 and <0.0001. Comparison among osteoblasts, MSCs, and exosomes, showed that osteoblasts had positive and statistically significant new-bone formation. The comparison for the spine was similar to the distal femur for osteoblasts.
Conclusion: This study showed robust positive bone-forming changes after osteoblast injection in the distal femur and the spine when compared to controls, MSCs, and exosomes.

Keywords: osteoporosis, ovariectomy, osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), exosomes

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