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Spotlight on inhaled ciprofloxacin and its potential in the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Authors Chorepsima S, Kechagias KS, Kalimeris G, Triarides NA, Falagas ME

Received 16 May 2018

Accepted for publication 31 July 2018

Published 27 November 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 4059—4066


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Qiongyu Guo

Stamatia Chorepsima,1,2 Konstantinos S Kechagias,1 Georgios Kalimeris,1,2 Nikolaos A Triarides,1,2 Matthew E Falagas1–3

1Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences (AIBS), Athens, Greece; 2Department of Medicine, Henry Dunant Hospital Center, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

Abstract: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a severe chronic illness characterized by irreversible dilation of airways and thickening of bronchial walls, chronic inflammation, repeated infections, and progressive obstruction of the airways. In contrast to cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (CFB), which is a well-defined genetic disorder, NCFB is a heterogeneous disease caused by many different medical entities. Inhaled antibiotics are effective for patients with CFB, but their efficacy in NCFB has not been proven. The main pathogens involved in the colonization of patients with bronchiectasis are Haemophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The latter is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, in NCFB, P. aeruginosa strains are frequently more resistant than those in CFB. At present, there are no approved inhaled antibiotic therapies for NCFB patients. Inhaled ciprofloxacin has been under investigation in the last few years. In two phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the use of inhaled ciprofloxacin was significantly associated with reduction in sputum bacterial density and greater eradication rates. In four phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the results regarding the time of the first exacerbation and the rate of exacerbations were inconsistent. Specifically, ORBIT-4 and RESPIRE-1 trials showed clinical benefit (prolongation of the time of the first exacerbation and reduced rate of exacerbations in the treatment group compared to the placebo group), whereas the ORBIT-3 and RESPIRE-2 failed to achieve their primary endpoints. The RESPIRE-1 was the first trial that examined the 14-days on/off course separate from the standard 28-days on/off regimen, which is based on CFB protocol treatments. The current data on the efficacy of inhaled ciprofloxacin are encouraging, but further evaluation is needed to determine the appropriate target group and the ideal duration of treatment.

Keywords: aerosolized antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, bronchiectasis, fluoroquinolone

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