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Sources and implications of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications

Authors Wu J, Jin Z, Zheng H, Yan L

Received 9 February 2016

Accepted for publication 16 March 2016

Published 10 May 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 145—153


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Jinzi Wu,1Zhen Jin,1Hong Zheng,1,2Liang-Jun Yan1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2Department of Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Basic Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: NAD+ is a fundamental molecule in metabolism and redox signaling. In diabetes and its complications, the balance between NADH and NAD+ can be severely perturbed. On one hand, NADH is overproduced due to influx of hyperglycemia to the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways and activation of the polyol pathway. On the other hand, NAD+ can be diminished or depleted by overactivation of poly ADP ribose polymerase that uses NAD+ as its substrate. Moreover, sirtuins, another class of enzymes that also use NAD+ as their substrate for catalyzing protein deacetylation reactions, can also affect cellular content of NAD+. Impairment of NAD+ regeneration enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and complex I in mitochondria can also contribute to NADH accumulation and NAD+ deficiency. The consequence of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is initially reductive stress that eventually leads to oxidative stress and oxidative damage to macromolecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. Accordingly, redox imbalance-triggered oxidative damage has been thought to be a major factor contributing to the development of diabetes and its complications. Future studies on restoring NADH/NAD+ redox balance could provide further insights into design of novel antidiabetic strategies.

Keywords: mitochondria, complex I, reactive oxygen species, polyol pathway, poly ADP ribosylation, sirtuins, oxidative stress, oxidative damage

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