Social deprivation as a risk factor for late presentation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Authors Lane M, Mathewson P, Sharma H, Palmer H, Shah P, Nightingale P, Tsaloumas M, Denniston A
Received 26 August 2014
Accepted for publication 9 October 2014
Published 17 February 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 347—352
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Mark Lane,1,* Priscilla A Mathewson,1,* Hannah E Sharma,1 Helen Palmer,1 Peter Shah,1–3 Peter Nightingale,1,4,5 Marie D Tsaloumas,1 Alastair K Denniston1,6
1Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK; 2NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 3Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; 4Dept of Statistics, Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Birmingham, UK; 5School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, 6Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
*These authors are joint first authors
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether social deprivation is a risk factor for late presentation of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and whether it affects their access to urgent laser treatment.
Methods: Using a 2:1 case: control design, 102 patients referred to a UK teaching hospital as part of the UK Diabetic Retinopathy National Screening Programme were identified for the period between 1 June 2010 to 1 June 2013. Social deprivation was scored using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010. Additional variables considered included age, duration of disease, ethnicity, and HbA1c at time of referral.
Results: The cases comprised 34 patients referred with proliferative (grade R3) retinopathy with a control group of 68 patients with lower retinopathy grades; two control patients were excluded due to incomplete data. On univariate analysis, R3 retinopathy was associated with higher social deprivation (P<0.001, Mann–Whitney U-test), and with higher HbA1c (11.5% vs 8.4%; P<0.001, Mann–Whitney U-test). Forward stepwise multivariable analysis showed that the association of R3 retinopathy with deprivation was significant even after adjusting for HbA1c (P=0.016). On univariate analysis South Asian ethnicity was also identified as being a risk factor for presentation with R3 retinopathy, but this was no longer significant when HbA1c was adjusted for in a forward stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion: In our cohort social deprivation appears to be associated with late presentation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Our study supports the need to target these groups to reduce preventable blindness and to identify strategies which overcome barriers to care.
Keywords: social deprivation, index of multiple deprivation, diabetes, proliferative diabetic retinopathy
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