Small interfering RNA targeting S100A4 sensitizes non-small-cell lung cancer cells (A549) to radiation treatment
Authors Qi R, Qaio T, Zhuang X
Received 17 February 2016
Accepted for publication 16 April 2016
Published 23 June 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 3753—3762
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Narasimha Reddy Parine
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jianmin Xu
Ruixue Qi, Tiankui Qiao, Xibing Zhuang
Department of Oncology, Affiliated Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of S100A4-small interfering RNA (S100A4-siRNA) on apoptosis and enhanced radiosensitivity in non-small-cell lung cancer (A549) cells. We also explored the mechanisms of radiosensitization and identified a new target to enhance radiosensitivity and gene therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.
Methods: RNA interference is a powerful tool for gene silencing. In this study, we constructed an effective siRNA to knock down S100A4. A549 cells were randomly divided into three groups: blank, negative control, and S100A4-siRNA. To investigate the effect of S100A4-siRNA, the expression of S100A4, E-cadherin, and p53 proteins and their messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Transwell chambers were used to assess cell invasion. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Radiosensitivity was determined by colony formation ability.
Results: Our results demonstrate that S100A4-siRNA effectively silenced the S100A4 gene. When siRNA against S100A4 was used, S100A4 protein expression was downregulated, whereas the expressions of E-cadherin and p53 were upregulated. In addition, a clear reduction in S100A4 mRNA levels was noted compared with the blank and negative control groups, whereas E-cadherin and p53 mRNA levels increased. Transfection with S100A4-siRNA significantly reduced the invasiveness of A549 cells. S100A4 silencing induced immediate G2/M arrest in cell cycle studies and increased apoptosis rates in A549 cells. In clonogenic assays, we used a multitarget, single-hit model to detect radiosensitivity after S100A4 knockdown. All parameters (D0, Dq, α, β) indicated that the downregulation of S100A4 enhanced radiosensitivity in A549 cells. Furthermore, S100A4-siRNA upregulated p53 expression, suggesting that S100A4 may promote A549 cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating the expression of other proteins. Therefore, siRNA-directed S100A4 knockdown may represent a viable clinical therapy for lung cancer.
Conclusion: S100A4 downregulation potentially enhances the sensitivity of human A549 cells to radiotherapy.
Keywords: lung cancer, S100A4, small interfering RNA, A549 cells
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