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Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD)

Authors Golzari SE, Khodadoust, Alakbarli F, Ghabili K, Islambulchilar Z, Shoja MM, Khalili M, Abbasnejad F, Sheikholeslamzadeh N, Moghaddam Shahabi N, Hosseini SF, Ansarin K

Received 28 November 2011

Accepted for publication 18 February 2012

Published 6 June 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 229—234


Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin1
1Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare) prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.

sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

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