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Simultaneous Occurrence of Sydenham Chorea with Erythema Marginatum: A Case of Rheumatic Fever

Authors Tsega Desta T, Naizgi M

Received 30 August 2019

Accepted for publication 5 February 2020

Published 18 February 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 55—58


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh

Temesgen Tsega Desta,1 Mulugeta Naizgi2

1Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Ayder Hospital, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Temesgen Tsega Desta Tel +251 911023103

Background: Rheumatic fever continues to be a major public health problem in the developing world, being responsible for many morbidities and mortalities. Were it not for its serious effects on the cardiovascular system, and to some extent on the central nervous system, the disease might not have significant consequences. The central nervous system involvement is explained with Sydenham chorea in which case the patient manifests with purposeless and choreiform movements aggravated by stress. Apart from this movement disorder the patient will also demonstrate emotional liability and motor manifestations. It is seen more commonly in children and young adolescent girls. It usually manifests as an isolated phenomenon called pure chorea, without evidence of active rheumatic fever; the other rare form of which is a type of acute rheumatic fever.
Clinical Description: This case report is about a nine-year-old female child presenting with two weeks of complaint of abnormal purposeless, non-rhythmic movement of extremities and the face, with failure to communicate. At presentation, she had non-pruritic skin lesions that had appeared a day prior to admission. The skin lesions were circular, red in color, and painless, involving the abdomen, and lower chest anteriorly, and extending to all extremities and the back. Two months previously she had a history of sore throat and treatment with unspecified P.O. medication. Antistreptolysin O (ASO) antibody was 430 Todd units/mL and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 58 mm/h. Echocardiography study revealed carditis (no evidence of chronicity) with moderate to severe MR, mild TR, no pulmonary hypertension, good biventricular function, and no pericardial effusion.
Conclusion: In this case report, we would like to show the central nervous system manifestation of rheumatic fever called Sydenham chorea seen together with erythema marginatum and other features of rheumatic fever.

Keywords: Sydenham chorea, erythema marginatum, rheumatic recurrence, antistreptolysin O antibody

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