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Short- and Long-Term Effects of Vitamin D Treatment on Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

Authors Saleh LA, Almutairi FM, Alorabi WK, Alkuhayli BA, Alzaidi SS, Alzahrani SB, Aljumayi FA, Abduljabbar MH, Alharthi AS, Alsufyani MA, Alhazmi MH, Althobaiti AA, Almutairi FN, Alshehri FS, Altowairqi E, Althobaiti YS

Received 7 December 2020

Accepted for publication 6 February 2021

Published 2 March 2021 Volume 2021:17 Pages 711—720


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Lobna A Saleh,1– 3 Farooq M Almutairi,2,4 Wejdan K Alorabi,1 Bashayr A Alkuhayli,1 Shaden S Alzaidi,1 Shahad B Alzahrani,1 Futun A Aljumayi,1 Maram H Abduljabbar,1 Ayidh S Alharthi,1 Mashhour A Alsufyani,1 Mohammed H Alhazmi,1 Abdulbari A Althobaiti,1 Fahad N Almutairi,1 Fahad S Alshehri,5 Ebtehal Altowairqi,1 Yusuf S Althobaiti1,2,6

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia; 2Addiction and Neuroscience Research Unit, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hafar Al-Batin, Hafar Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 6General Administration for Precursors and Laboratories, General Directorate of Narcotics Control, Ministry of Interior, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Yusuf S Althobaiti
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Health Science Campus, P.O. Box 11099, Airport Road, Al Haweiah, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966 545736200
Email [email protected]

Purpose: Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders. The nutritional etiology of the depression proposes that vitamin D may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of depression. Further, vitamin D deficiency has been found to aggravate depression in animals. Therefore, vitamin D treatment might be a potential therapeutic aid in depression management. This study aimed to explore the antidepressant effects of vitamin D in a Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced depression model.
Methods: Thirty-six mice were randomly assigned to short-term and long-term experimental groups. In each group, mice were randomly subcategorized into three subgroups: 1. control (received vehicle), 2. BCG (received BCG [107 CFU/mouse]), and 3. BCG + vitamin D (received vitamin D [60.000 IU/kg] before BCG [107 CFU/mouse] inoculation). After completion of the two experimental periods (3 days for the short-term group and 2 weeks for the long-term group), the mice underwent three behavioral tests: locomotor activity, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST).
Results: Locomotor activity did not significantly differ among the subgroups in either the long-term or short-term groups. In the short-term group, the total immobility time on the FST was decreased in the vitamin D-treated group compared to the BCG group. However, in the TST, no significant difference was found between the vitamin D-treated group and the BCG group. In the long-term group, the immobility time on the FST was decreased in the vitamin D-treated group compared to the BCG group. Similarly, the total immobility time on the TST was also significantly lower in the vitamin D-treated mice than in the BCG-treated mice.
Conclusion: Vitamin D is useful in the management of depressive behavior. The potential role of vitamin D in the etiology of depression should be investigated in future work.

Keywords: depression, natural supplements, tail suspension test, forced swimming test

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