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SGLT-2 inhibitors as promising therapeutics for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: pathophysiology, clinical outcomes, and future directions

Authors Gharaibeh NE, Rahhal MN, Rahimi L, Ismail-Beigi F

Received 18 April 2019

Accepted for publication 6 June 2019

Published 3 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1001—1012

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S212715

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos


Naser Eddin Gharaibeh, Marie-Noel Rahhal, Leili Rahimi, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi

Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA

Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly recognized as a major expanding national and international health problem. Despite numerous investigations using a variety of therapeutic agents, the positive result on any single medication has not been established enough to gain widespread approval. This is in part related to concerns regarding side effects of agents, but is also related to the complex etiology of NAFLD. An often discussed question has been whether insulin resistance that is frequently present in those with NAFLD is a cause of NAFLD or is merely associated with the condition. Nevertheless, it is clear that a very high proportion of patients with NAFLD are obese, have elements of metabolic syndrome, or have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Also, much progress has been made toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology of NAFLD. Life-style interventions resulting in weight loss remain the foundation for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In addition, agents such as Vitamin E and pioglitazone as well as other glycemia-lowering agents including Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and Sodium Glucose Contransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i(s)) exhibit positive effects on the clinical course of NAFLD. This narrative review summarizes the current understanding of the diagnosis, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of NAFLD and specifically focuses on the efficacy of SGLT2i(s) as a potentially promising group of agents for the management of patients with NAFLD.

Keywords: fatty liver, insulin resistance, beta-oxidation, liver biopsy, de novo lipid synthesis
 

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