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Sevoflurane mitigates shedding of hyaluronan from the coronary endothelium, also during ischemia/reperfusion: an ex vivo animal study

Authors Chen C, Chappell D, Annecke T, Conzen P, Jacob M, Welsch U, Zwissler B, Becker BF

Received 20 October 2015

Accepted for publication 21 January 2016

Published 15 April 2016 Volume 2016:4 Pages 81—90

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HP.S98660

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Professor Jose Lopez-Barneo

Peer reviewer comments 6

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Dörthe Katschinski


Congcong Chen,1,3 Daniel Chappell,2,3 Thorsten Annecke,2,3 Peter Conzen,2 Matthias Jacob,2,3 Ulrich Welsch,4 Bernhard Zwissler,2 Bernhard F Becker3

1Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Clinic of Anesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 4Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany

Abstract: Glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, helps to maintain vascular integrity. Preconditioning the heart with volatile anesthetic agents protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated a possible protective effect of sevoflurane on the glycocalyx, especially on HA. The effect of pre-ischemic treatment with sevoflurane (15 minutes at 2% vol/vol gas) on shedding of HA was evaluated in 28 isolated, beating guinea pig hearts, subjected to warm ischemia (20 minutes at 37°C) followed by reperfusion (40 minutes), half with and half without preconditioning by sevoflurane. HA concentration was measured in the coronary effluent. Over the last 20 minutes of reperfusion hydroxyethyl starch (1 g%) was continuously infused and the epicardial transudate collected over the last 5 minutes for measuring the colloid extravasation. Additional hearts were fixed by perfusion after the end of reperfusion for immunohistology and electron microscopy. Sevoflurane did not significantly affect post-ischemic oxidative stress, but strongly inhibited shedding of HA during the whole period, surprisingly even prior to ischemia. Immunohistology demonstrated that heparan sulfates and SDC1 of the glycocalyx were also preserved by sevoflurane. Electron microscopy revealed shedding of glycocalyx caused by ischemia and a mostly intact glycocalyx in hearts exposed to sevoflurane. Coronary vascular permeability of the colloid hydroxyethyl starch was significantly decreased by sevoflurane vs the control. We conclude that application of sevoflurane preserves the coronary endothelial glycocalyx, especially HA, sustaining the vascular barrier against ischemic damage. This may explain beneficial effects associated with clinical use of volatile anesthetics against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Keywords:
endothelial glycocalyx, hyaluronan, ischemia-reperfusion injury, volatile anesthetics, preconditioning

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