Serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 are associated with event-free survival in adult Ewing sarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy
Authors de Groot S, Gelderblom H, Fiocco M, BovĂ©e JVMG, van der Hoeven JJM, Pijl H, Kroep JR
Received 2 October 2016
Accepted for publication 2 February 2017
Published 13 June 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2963—2970
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati
Stefanie de Groot,1 Hans Gelderblom,1 Marta Fiocco,2,3 Judith VMG Bovée,4 Jacobus JM van der Hoeven,1 Hanno Pijl,5 Judith R Kroep1
1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 3Mathematical Department, Leiden University, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands
Background: Activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathway is involved in cell growth and proliferation and is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and therapy resistance in solid tumors. We examined whether variability in serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) can predict event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in Ewing sarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy.
Patients and methods: Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF-BP3 of 22 patients with localized or metastasized Ewing sarcoma treated with six cycles of vincristine/ifosfamide/doxorubicin/etoposide (VIDE) chemotherapy were recorded. Baseline levels were compared with presixth cycle levels using paired t-tests and were tested for associations with EFS and OS. Continuous variables were dichotomized according to the Contal and O’Quigley procedure. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression analysis.
Results: High baseline IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 serum levels were associated with EFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.009–0.602 and HR 0.090, 95% CI 0.011–0.712, respectively) in univariate and multivariate analyses (HR 0.063, 95% CI 0.007–0.590 and HR 0.057, 95% CI 0.005–0.585, respectively). OS was improved, but this was not statistically significant. IGF-BP3 and IGF-2 serum levels increased during treatment with VIDE chemotherapy (P=0.055 and P=0.023, respectively).
Conclusion: High circulating serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 and the molar ratio of IGF-1:IGF-BP3 serum levels were associated with improved EFS and a trend for improved OS in Ewing sarcoma patients treated with VIDE chemotherapy. These findings suggest the need for further investigation of the IGF-1 pathway as a biomarker of disease progression in patients with Ewing sarcoma.
Keywords: Ewing sarcoma, chemotherapy, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-BP3, IGF-1R, survival, biomarkers