Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies amongst normal pregnant women in Nigeria
Akinsegun Abduljaleel Akinbami1, Kabiru Afolarin Rabiu2, Adeniyi Abiodun Adewunmi2, Kikelomo Ololade Wright3, Adedoyin Owolabi Dosunmu1, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo4, Adewumi Adediran4, Oluseye Vincent Osunkalu4
1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Department of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, 4Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, Nigeria
Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous virus belonging to the herpes family, is known to be transmitted frequently to developing fetuses in pregnancy. In an immunocompromised state like pregnancy, primary infection through blood transfusion or reactivation of a latent CMV infection can cause severe illness. The study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to cytomegalovirus amongst pregnant women in correlation with previous exposure to blood transfusion.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out amongst 179 HIV negative pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria. Five mL of blood was collected and stored in a plain bottle, centrifuged on the same day and the serum stored at -20°C. All samples were screened for anti-CMV IgG antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Consenting participants were instructed to fill a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain demographic and other related information. Statistical analysis of the results was done using Pearson's chi squared test for analytical assessment.
Results: A total of 97.2% of the pregnant women recruited for this study were anti-CMV IgG positive. Out of the 179 recruited for the study 174 responded to the question on previous history of blood transfusion, 14.9% of the respondents (26 of 174) had a previous history of blood transfusion and all tested positive to the anti-CMVIgG antibody. However, past history of blood transfusion and educational level were found to be insignificant to the risk of acquiring CMV infection.
Conclusion: The seroprevalence of the CMV antibody amongst pregnant women in this environment is high in relation to findings in other developing countries. There is the need to assess anti-CMV immunoglobulin M antibodies in pregnant women, which is a determinant of active infection.
Keywords: CMV, IgG, pregnant women
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