Seroprevalence and associated factors of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-positive adults attending an antiretroviral treatment clinic at Wolaita Sodo University Referral Hospital
Received 26 February 2019
Accepted for publication 19 June 2019
Published 6 September 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 137—147
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Gerry Lake-Bakaar
Abraham Goa, Tadele Dana, Shimelash Bitew, Aseb Arba
Wolaita Sodo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Aseb Arba
Wolaita Sodo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO. 138, Areka, Ethiopia
Tel +25 191 603 8833
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) constitutes major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa from different infections occuring in HIV positive patients. Ethiopia is a part of sub-Saharan Africa with 1.5% adult HIV prevalence, and also belongs to the intermediate to high HBV prevalence category. Hence, this study aimed to measure the seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among HIV-positive adults attending an antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinic at Wolaita Sodo University Referral Hospital.
Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 15 to December 10, 2017 using a systematic random sampling technique. After getting informed written consent, data were collected by a structured and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Venous blood was collected and centrifuged to separate serum. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected from serum using an advanced quality one-step rapid test kit. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.01 and exported to SPSS version 20. Summary statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analyses were performed. The variables having significant association of P<0.05 in the multivariate logistic regression were taken as independent factors. OR and 95% CI were used to measure the strength of the association.
Results: A total of 442 study participants, 187 males and 255 females, were included in this study. Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 37 (8.4%). Family history of HBV (adjusted OR=8.83, 95% CI=2.56–30.49), multiple sexual partners (adjusted OR=7.08, 95% CI=2.29–21.9), and CD4 count <200 cells/μL (adjusted OR=15.34, 95% CI=4.77–49.3) were found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HBsAg in this study was high. Family history of HBV, multiple sexual partners, and CD4 count <200 cells/μL were independently associated with HBsAg positivity. Therefore, screening for HBV is recommended before initiation of ART in HIV patients and providing appropriate treatment for co-infection. Furthermore, accurate information on risk factors for HBV transmission should be provided.
Keywords: hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV, co-infection, HIV-positive adults, highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens, hepatitis B virus infection
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