Self-efficacy-focused education in persons with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Received 29 October 2018
Accepted for publication 7 December 2018
Published 29 January 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 67—79
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Mei-chun Cheung
Xinjun Jiang,1,2 Jingpin Wang,1 Yanhui Lu,1 Hua Jiang,1 Mingzi Li1
1School of Nursing, Peking University, Beijing, China; 2School of International Nursing, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China
Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of self-efficacy-focused education on health outcomes in persons with diabetes and review the strategies employed in the interventions.
Background: The traditional educational interventions for persons with diabetes were insufficient to achieve the desired outcomes. Self-efficacy-focused education has been used to regulate the blood sugar level, behaviors, and psychosocial indicators for persons with diabetes.
Design: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods: Studies on the effectiveness of self-efficacy-focused education in persons with diabetes were searched in six databases from inception until January 2018. The data were extracted and the quality of literature was assessed independently. Review Manager 5.3 was applied for the meta-analysis. Besides, the findings were summarized for narrative synthesis.
Results: Sixteen trials with 1,745 participants were included in the systematic review and ten trails with 1,308 participants in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis for A1C, self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, knowledge, and quality of life (QOL) were represented in four, six, six, three, and three studies, respectively. The findings indicated that self-efficacy-focused education would probably reduce A1C, enhance self-efficacy, regulate self-management behaviors, increase knowledge, and improve the QOL for patients with diabetes. Weak quality studies, limited participants, and heterogeneity hindered the results pooled of the other secondary outcomes of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, weight, weight circumference, body mass index, plasma lipid profile, and other psychological indicators. Goal setting, self-management skills practicing and recording, peer models, demonstration, persuasion by health providers, and positive feedback were the most commonly used strategies in the interventions. However, physiological/emotion arousal strategies were relatively less applied and varied significantly.
Conclusion: Individuals with diabetes may benefit a lot from the self-efficacy-focused education. However, insufficient high-quality studies, short-term follow-up period, relatively deficient physiological/emotion strategies, and incomplete outcome assessments were the drawbacks in most studies. Establishing satisfactory self-efficacy-focused education and better evaluating the effects were required in further studies.
Keywords: self-efficacy, self-management behavior, diabetes mellitus, diabetes education, review
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