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Self-Care Adherence And Barriers To Good Glycaemic Control In Nepalese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Pokhrel S, Shrestha S, Timilsina A, Sapkota M, Bhatt MP, Pardhe BD

Received 23 May 2019

Accepted for publication 13 September 2019

Published 9 October 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 817—826

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S216842

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Sushant Pokhrel, Sneha Shrestha, Alaska Timilsina, Manisha Sapkota, Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Bashu Dev Pardhe

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal

Correspondence: Bashu Dev Pardhe
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, P.O.Box No. 15201, Kathmandu, Nepal
Tel +977 1 4030781
Email bashudev.pardhe@mmihs.edu.np

Purpose: The patient believes in adherence to medication rather than to self-care adherence and lifestyle changes for the management of diabetes. This study was carried out to establish the association of self-care adherence and their barriers in poor glycemic control in our diabetic population.
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 already diagnosed diabetes outpatients attended in our two hospitals. Glycaemic control was defined by levels of HbA1c. Socio-demographic data, lifestyle variables and anthropometric measurements were recorded using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profiles were estimated using the manufacturer’s guideline. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for comparison between different groups and the correlation was established by Spearman correlation. Risk factors associated with poor glycaemic control were verified by logistic regression analysis.
Results: The mean HbA1c of the study population was 7.4±1.3% and 65.4% had poor glycaemic control with mean 8.0±1.1%. Higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with duration of diabetes, a number of drugs used, patient–physician relationship and knowledge about diabetes. The poor glycaemic control was significantly associated with low adherence of following the meal plan, regular medication and regular exercising (p<0.001). Among all the barriers, a too busy schedule for following the meal plan, taking medications and exercising regularly was significantly correlated with HbA1c levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed irregular meal plan (OR=5.27), irregular exercise (OR=2.25), number of medication used (OR= 0.19) and lesser extent patient–physician relationship (OR=2.68) were independent risk factors for poor glycaemic control.
Conclusion: The poor glycaemic control was associated with poor adherence to self-care adherence and their barriers in our diabetic population. Integrated knowledge on diabetes management should be targeted to improve glycaemic control in our communities.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, lifestyle variables, risk factors

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