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Selenium nanoparticles as anti-infective implant coatings for trauma orthopedics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis: in vitro and in vivo assessment

Authors Tran PA, O'Brien-Simpson N, Palmer JA, Bock N, Reynolds EC, Webster TJ, Deva A, Morrison WA, O'Connor AJ

Received 11 December 2018

Accepted for publication 16 April 2019

Published 1 July 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 4613—4624


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo

Phong A Tran,1–3 Neil O’Brien-Simpson,4 Jason A Palmer,5 Nathalie Bock1,6 Eric C Reynolds,4 Thomas J Webster,7 Anand Deva,8 Wayne A Morrison,5 Andrea J O’Connor3

1School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engeneering, Faculty of Science and Engeneering, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia; 2Interface Science and Materials Engineering Group, School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering, QUT, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia; 3Departments of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, The Particulate Fluid Processing Centre, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia; 4Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia; 5O’ Brien Institute, St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia; 6School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Translational Research Institute, QUT, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 7Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA; 8Surgical Infection Research Group, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Background: Bacterial infection is a common and serious complication in orthopedic implants following traumatic injury, which is often associated with extensive soft tissue damage and contaminated wounds. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have been found in these infected wounds, especially in patients who have multi trauma and prolonged stay in intensive care units.Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a coating on orthopedic implants that is effective against drug-resistant bacteria.
Methods and results: We applied nanoparticles (30-70nm) of the trace element selenium (Se) as a coating through surface-induced nucleation-deposition on titanium implants and investigated the antimicrobial activity against drug resistant bacteria including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in vitro and in an infected femur model in rats.The nanoparticles were shown in vitro to have antimicrobial activity at concentrations as low as 0.5ppm. The nanoparticle coatings strongly inhibited biofilm formation on the implants and reduced the number of viable bacteria in the surrounding tissue following inoculation of implants with biofilm forming doses of bacteria.
Conclusion: This study shows a proof of concept for a selenium nanoparticle coatings as a potential anti-infective barrier for orthopedic medical devices in the setting of contamination with multi-resistant bacteria. It also represents one of the few (if only) in vivo assessment of selenium nanoparticle coatings on reducing antibiotic-resistant orthopedic implant infections.

Keywords: orthopedic, implants, antimicrobial, biofilm, selenium, nanoparticles

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