Back to Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 9

Scotoma analysis of 10-2 visual field testing with a white target in screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy

Authors Browning D, Lee C

Received 8 February 2015

Accepted for publication 27 March 2015

Published 27 May 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 943—952

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S82398

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


David J Browning, Chong Lee

Department of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA


Objective: To quantify the variability of scotomas detected by 10-2 visual field (VF) testing in patients taking hydroxychloroquine without and with retinopathy.
Design: Retrospective review of clinical charts and visual fields.
Subjects: Twenty-one patients taking hydroxychloroquine without retinopathy, and nine patients taking hydroxychloroquine and one patient taking chloroquine with retinopathy.
Methods: Retinopathy was defined by annular scotomas on 10-2 VF testing with corroborative spectral domain optical coherence tomographic outer retinal changes and multifocal electroretinographic changes leading to cessation of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine. Location and depth of scotoma points on 10-2 VF testing were recorded and their fates followed in serial, reliable 10-2 VFs performed with a white target over time.
Main outcome measures: Number of scotoma points and locations, percentage of persistent scotoma points, size of scotomas, location of scotomas, and percentage of scotomas deepening.
Results: A median of five, interquartile range (IQR) 3–8 scotoma points per VF occurred in patients without retinopathy. A median of 86%, IQR 63%–100% of these points resolve on the subsequent field. For patients with retinopathy, a median of 22%, IQR 10%–59% resolve. The median percentage of scotoma points in the zone 2–8 degrees from fixation in eyes with retinopathy was 79%, IQR 68%–85% compared to 60%, IQR 54%–75% in eyes without retinopathy (P=0.0094). Single-point scotomas were more common in eyes without than with retinopathy. Scotomas consisting of more than four contiguous scotoma points were generally indicative of retinopathy.
Conclusion: Point scotomas are common and variable in 10-2 VF testing with a white target for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in subjects without retinopathy. The annular zone 2 to 8 degrees from fixation was useful for distinguishing the significance of scotoma points. Scotomas with more contiguous scotoma points were more often associated with retinopathy.

Keywords: hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, 10-2 visual field, ideal body weight, toxicity, retinopathy

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]