Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 9

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrically stimulated physical stress in bipolar disorder patients

Authors Tanaka Y, Maruyama Y, Ishitobi Y, Kawano A, Ando T, Ikeda R, Inoue A, Imanaga J, Okamoto S, Kanehisa M, Ninomiya T, Tsuru J, Akiyoshi J

Received 22 July 2013

Accepted for publication 3 September 2013

Published 6 December 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 1899—1905


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Aimi Kawano, Tomoko Ando, Rie Ikeda, Ayako Inoue, Junko Imanaga, Shizuko Okamoto, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Jusen Tsuru, Jotaro Akiyoshi

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama-Machi, Oita, Japan

Background: Bipolar disorder (BP) is often associated with a change in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary α-amylase (sAA) levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients.
Method: We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers.
Results: Tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls. No difference in salivary cortisol was observed between BP patients and the healthy controls. Only three time points were measured before and after the electrical stimulation stress. Furthermore, sAA secretion by BP patients increased before and after electrical stimulation.
Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a useful biological marker for BP patients.

Keywords: HPA axis, bipolar disorder, α-amylase, cortisol, SAM activity

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other articles by this author:

Natural reduced water suppressed anxiety and protected the heightened oxidative stress in rats

Masuda K, Tanaka Y, Kanehisa M, Ninomiya T, Inoue A, Higuma H, Kawashima C, Nakanishi M, Okamoto K, Akiyoshi J

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2017, 13:2357-2362

Published Date: 8 September 2017

Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

Tsuru J, Tanaka Y, Ishitobi Y, Maruyama Y, Inoue A, Kawano A, Ikeda R, Ando T, Oshita H, Aizawa S, Masuda K, Higuma H, Kanehisa M, Ninomiya T, Akiyoshi J

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2014, 10:2123-2133

Published Date: 11 November 2014

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous and oral administration to healthy volunteers

Nagelschmitz J, Blunck M, Kraetzschmar J, Ludwig M, Wensing G, Hohlfeld T

Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 2014, 6:51-59

Published Date: 19 March 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010