Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of oral omaveloxolone (RTA 408), a synthetic triterpenoid, in a first-in-human trial of patients with advanced solid tumors
Authors Creelan BC, Gabrilovich DI, Gray JE, Williams CC, Tanvetyanon T, Haura EB, Weber JS, Gibney GT, Markowitz J, Proksch JW, Reisman SA, McKee MD, Chin MP, Meyer CJ, Antonia SJ
Received 14 March 2017
Accepted for publication 30 June 2017
Published 29 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 4239—4250
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Carlos Vigil Gonzales
Ben C Creelan,1 Dmitry I Gabrilovich,2 Jhanelle E Gray,1 Charles C Williams,1 Tawee Tanvetyanon,1 Eric B Haura,1 Jeffrey S Weber,3 Geoffrey T Gibney,4 Joseph Markowitz,5 Joel W Proksch,6 Scott A Reisman,6 Mark D McKee,7 Melanie P Chin,6 Colin J Meyer,6 Scott J Antonia1
1Department of Thoracic Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, USA; 2The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Georgetown-Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 5Department of Cutaneous Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, USA; 6Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX, USA; 7AbbVie, Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA
Background: Omaveloxolone is a semisynthetic oleanane triterpenoid that potently activates Nrf2 with subsequent antioxidant function. We conducted a first-in-human Phase I clinical trial (NCT02029729) with the primary objectives to determine the appropriate dose for Phase II studies, characterize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, and assess antitumor activity.
Methods: Omaveloxolone was administered orally once daily continuously in a 28-day cycle for patients with stage 4 relapsed/refractory melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer. An accelerated titration design was employed until a grade 2-related adverse event (AE) occurred. A standard 3+3 dose escalation was employed. Single-dose and steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of the drug were characterized. Downstream Nrf2 activation was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantification of target gene mRNA expression.
Results: Omaveloxolone was tested at four dose levels up to 15 mg given orally once daily. No dose-limiting toxicities were detected, and the maximum tolerated dose was not determined. All drug-related AEs were either grade 1 or 2 in severity, and none required clinical action. The most common drug-related AEs were elevated alkaline phosphatase (18%) and anemia (18%). No drug interruptions or reductions were required. Omaveloxolone was rapidly absorbed and exhibited proportional increases in exposure across dose levels. With some exceptions, an overall trend toward time-dependent and dose-dependent activation of Nrf2 antioxidant genes was observed. No confirmed radiologic responses were seen, although one lung cancer subject did have stable disease exceeding 1 year.
Conclusions: Omaveloxolone has favorable tolerability at biologically active doses, although this trial had a small sample size which limits definitive conclusions. These findings support further investigation of omaveloxolone in cancer.
Keywords: antioxidant inflammation modulator, nitrotyrosine, nitric oxide synthase, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, immuno-oncology, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, bardoxolone methyl
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