Safety of anti-VEGF treatments in a diabetic rat model and retinal cell culture
Received 28 December 2018
Accepted for publication 24 April 2019
Published 1 July 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1097—1114
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Richard Filek,1 Phil Hooper,2,3 Tom G Sheidow,2,3 Hong Liu,3 Subrata Chakrabarti,1 Cindy ML Hutnik1–3
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3Ivey Eye Institute, St. Joseph’s Health Care London, London, ON, Canada
Purpose: To analyze the safety of different concentrations of anti-VEGF on retinal cells.
Methods: Non-diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats received intravitreal rat anti-VEGF injections that had final vitreous concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125 (clinical dose), and 0.25 mg/mL. Rats were also injected with the clinical dose of ranibizumab. TUNEL assay was performed on sectioned eyes to evaluate apoptotic cells. In vitro, rat retinal cell cultures were exposed to 0, 0.0625, 0.125 (clinical dose), and 0.25 mg/mL of ranibizumab for 48 and 72 hrs. Cellular metabolic activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, necrosis by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and apoptosis by cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Diabetic rats had a significant increase (p<0.03) in apoptotic cell death at half the clinical dose, at the clinical dose, and at double the clinical dose. In vitro, MTT showed a significant decrease (p<0.04) in cellular metabolic activity at the clinical dose and double the clinical dose compared to control at 48 and 72 hrs. LDH showed a significant increase (p<0.04) in necrosis at the clinical dose and double the clinical dose compared to control at 48 and 72 hrs. ELISA showed a significant increase (p<0.04) in apoptosis at half the clinical dose, at the clinical dose, and double the clinical dose, compared to control at 48 and 72 hrs.
Conclusions: Anti-VEGF treatment may be potentially detrimental to the retina by decreasing cellular metabolic activity and increasing cytotoxicity of retinal cells. The results provide a cautionary note to monitor both the retina and optic nerve status in patients undergoing frequent injections.
Keywords: diabetic macular edema, diabetes, retina, anti-VEGF, ranibizumab, safety, cytotoxicity
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