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S100 calcium binding protein B as a biomarker of delirium duration in the intensive care unit – an exploratory analysis

Authors Khan BA, Farber MO, Campbell N, Perkins A, Prasad NK, Hui SL, Miller DK, Calvo-Ayala E, Buckley JD, Ionescu R, Shekhar A, Ely EW, Boustani MA

Received 4 July 2013

Accepted for publication 3 September 2013

Published 2 December 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 855—861

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S51004

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Babar A Khan,1–3 Mark O Farber,1 Noll Campbell,2–5 Anthony Perkins,2,3 Nagendra K Prasad,6 Siu L Hui,1–3 Douglas K Miller,1–3 Enrique Calvo-Ayala,1 John D Buckley,1 Ruxandra Ionescu,1 Anantha Shekhar,1 E Wesley Ely,7,8 Malaz A Boustani1–3

1Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 4Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, 5Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, 6Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, 7Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center (GRECC), Nashville, TN, USA

Background: Currently, there are no valid and reliable biomarkers to identify delirious patients predisposed to longer delirium duration. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100β) levels will be associated with longer delirium duration in critically ill patients.
Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the medical, surgical, and progressive intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care, university affiliated, and urban hospital. Sixty-three delirious patients were selected for the analysis, with two samples of S100β collected on days 1 and 8 of enrollment. The main outcome measure was delirium duration. Using the cutoff of <0.1 ng/mL and $0.1 ng/mL as normal and abnormal levels of S100β, respectively, on day 1 and day 8, four exposure groups were created: Group A, normal S100β levels on day 1 and day 8; Group B, normal S100β level on day 1 and abnormal S100β level on day 8; Group C, abnormal S100β level on day 1 and normal on day 8; and Group D, abnormal S100β levels on both day 1 and day 8.
Results: Patients with abnormal levels of S100β showed a trend towards higher delirium duration (P=0.076); Group B (standard deviation) (7.0 [3.2] days), Group C (5.5 [6.3] days), and Group D (5.3 [6.0] days), compared to patients in Group A (3.5 [5.4] days).
Conclusion: This preliminary investigation identified a potentially novel role for S100ß as a biomarker for delirium duration in critically ill patients. This finding may have important implications for refining future delirium management strategies in ICU patients.

Keywords: coma, S100ß, blood–brain barrier, astrocytes

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