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Role of apolipoprotein E in neurodegenerative diseases

Authors Giau VV, Bagyinszky E, An S, Kim S

Received 9 March 2015

Accepted for publication 23 April 2015

Published 16 July 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 1723—1737

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S84266

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Wai Kwong Tang

Vo Van Giau,1 Eva Bagyinszky,1 Seong Soo A An,1 SangYun Kim2

1Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 2Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine in Seoul National Bundang Hospital, Seoul, South Korea

Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system. APOE-dependent alterations of the endocytic pathway can affect different functions. APOE binds to cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids and to the hydrophobic amyloid-β peptide, regulating amyloid-β aggregations and clearances in the brain. Several APOE isoforms with major structural differences were discovered and shown to influence the brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signaling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. This review will summarize the updated research progress on APOE functions and its role in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Type III hyperlipoproteinemia, vascular dementia, and ischemic stroke. Understanding the mutations in APOE, their structural properties, and their isoforms is important to determine its role in various diseases and to advance the development of therapeutic strategies. Targeting APOE may be a potential approach for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases in humans.

Keywords: apolipoprotein E, pathogenesis, diseases

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