Risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine adjunctive treatments in major depression with psychotic features: a comparative study
Departments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of novel antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic depression.
Method: Consecutive patients who were admitted (n = 51) with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression with psychotic features (delusions or hallucinations or both) participated in this open-label, naturalistic study. All patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (citalopram or venlafaxine extended release [XR]), and atypical antipsychotic agents were added, as tolerated, during the first week of initiating the citalopram or venlafaxine. There were patients (n = 16) who received risperidone, who received quetiapine (n = 20), and who received olanzapine (n = 15), as an adjunctive treatment to either citalopram or venlafaxine for at least 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S), as the primary outcome measure, as well as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 item (HAM-D21) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Tolerance to treatments and weight changes were monitored over the period of the trial.
Results: All patients completed the trial with no drop outs. At 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant (P < 0.001) clinical improvement in all outcome measures for both the depressive and psychotic symptoms, for all three groups of atypical adjunctive treatments. Utilizing analysis of variance (ANOVA), there were no significant differences between the three adjunctive treatment groups in outcome measures. The three antipsychotic agents were equally tolerated. At 8 weeks there was slight increase in weight in the three treatment groups, which was statistically significant (P > 0.01) in the olanzapine group.
Conclusion: Quetiapine, risperidone, and olanzapine, given as adjunctive treatment with SSRIS or SNRIs can significantly and equally improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, in the short-term treatment of major depression with psychotic features. The author recommends that large controlled trials be conducted to examine the differences in long-term efficacy and tolerance between the atypical antipsychotic agents, in the treatment of major depression with or without psychotic features.
Keywords: depression, novels, antipsychotics, treatment, augmentation
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