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Risk Prediction and Prognosis of Invasive Fungal Disease in Hematological Malignancies Patients Complicated with Bloodstream Infections

Authors Xiao H, Tang Y, Cheng Q, Liu J, Li X

Received 12 November 2019

Accepted for publication 2 March 2020

Published 24 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 2167—2175

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S238166

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Eileen O'Reilly


Han Xiao,1 Yishu Tang,2 Qian Cheng,1 Jing Liu,1 Xin Li1

1Department of Hematology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Emergency, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Xin Li
Department of Hematology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
Tel/Fax +86-731-88618014
Email lixiner1975@163.com

Purpose: In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), bloodstream infections (BSI) and invasive fungal disease (IFD) remain important complications causing considerable mortality and morbidity. At present, the morbidity of IFD and the strategies to initiate antifungal treatment in HM patients with BSI remain unclear.
Patients and Methods: Patient characteristics, infection-related variables, and therapy-related features of 1374 HM patients with proven BSI from three hospitals were reviewed to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of IFD.
Results: The morbidity of proven and probable IFD in HM patients with BSI was 11.2%, and the mortality of those patients was 40.5%. Existing IFD risk scores were not accurate enough in distinguishing these patients benefiting from antifungal prophylaxis. Multivariate logistic regression identified age > 45 years, profound neutropenia, hypoproteinemia, and use of vasopressors as independent variables associated with IFD morbidity in HM patients with BSI. In patients with proven and probable IFD patients, age > 45 years, Pitt bacteremia score > 3, use of vasopressors, abnormal blood coagulation, and initiation of antifungal therapy within 72 hrs after the onset of fever were independent prognostic factors. The mortality was significantly reduced in patients with high-risk factors of IFD if they initiate antifungal treatment within 72 hrs after the onset of fever compared to the patients not.
Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality of IFD increase significantly in HM patients with BSI. Early antifungal therapy may improve prognosis in HM patients with BSI complicated with IFD risk factors.

Keywords: invasive fungal diseases, hematologic malignancies, bloodstream infections, risk scores, prognosis

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