Risk factors for the difficulties in general activities across the day in Chinese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Authors Ke X, Du Y, Zheng Y, Su L, Chen Y, Zhang YL, Chen K, Cheng Y, Chen W
Received 17 September 2018
Accepted for publication 4 December 2018
Published 31 December 2018 Volume 2019:15 Pages 157—166
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yu-Ping Ning
Xiaoyan Ke,1 Yasong Du,2 Yi Zheng,3 Linyan Su,4 Yun Chen,5 Yanlei Zhang,5 Kui Chen,5 Yan Cheng,5 Wendong Chen6,7
1Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Anding Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4The Second Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 6Changsha Normin Health Technology Ltd., Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 7Normin Health Consulting Ltd., Toronto, ON, Canada
Objectives: To explore the factors significantly associated with the difficulties of general activities during specific time periods across the day in Chinese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: A cross-sectional study assessing the validity and reliability of Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD) for difficulties of general activities during specific time periods of the day in 200 Chinese children and adolescents with ADHD was the data source for this post-hoc analysis. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors significantly associated with the total and subscale scores of QCD respectively.
Results: ADHD subtype of inattention (vs combination subtype, coefficient 3.69, P=0.006), parent–child interaction activity (vs no parent–child activity, coefficient 4.30, P=0.002), and any psychiatric comorbidities (vs no mental comorbidities, coefficient -3.68, P=0.010) were independently and significantly associated with the total score of QCD (higher score indicating less difficulties, and vice-versa). These three factors and the other two factors, including mother’s education and parenting style, were independently and significantly associated with at least one subscale score of QCD for the five time domains across the day.
Conclusion: The overall difficulties of the general activities across the day in ADHD patients could be independently affected by ADHD subtype, psychiatric comorbidities, and parent–children interaction activity. However, the factors significantly associated with the difficulties of the general activities during specific time periods of the day in ADHD patients were slightly different.
Keywords: attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder, Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties QCD, general activities, risk factor
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