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Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer among Women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Unmatched Case–Control Study

Authors Tolessa L, Sendo EG, Dinegde NG, Desalew A

Received 17 November 2020

Accepted for publication 1 January 2021

Published 18 January 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 101—110


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Everett Magann

Lidia Tolessa,1 Endalew Gemechu Sendo,2 Negalign Getahun Dinegde,2 Assefa Desalew1

1School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Assefa Desalew
College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box: 235, Harar, Ethiopia
Tel +251913083613

Background: Breast cancer is a common public health problem and the main cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There is a paucity of evidence on the risk factors of breast cancer in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors of breast cancer among women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Methods: We conducted an institutional-based unmatched case–control study with a sample of 348 women (116 cases and 232 controls). Participants were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were entered using EpiData version 4.6 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Multivariable analysis was carried out using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age (+SD) of the participants was 42.7 (± 11.3) and 40.7 (± 14.6) for the cases and controls, respectively. Early onset of menarche (AOR= 4.10; 95% CI: 1.84, 9.15), rural women (AOR= 3.64; 95% CI:1.38, 9.57), utilization of packed foods or drinks (AOR= 2.80; 95% CI:1.52, 5.15), and smoke-dried meat (AOR= 2.41; 95% CI:1.36, 4.27), family history of cancer (AOR= 2.11; 95% CI:1.04, 4.26), overweight and/or obesity (AOR= 2.38; 95% CI:1.31, 4.31), and women with one or less children (AOR= 1.86; 95% CI:1.01, 3.41) were associated factors with breast cancer risk.
Conclusion: In this study, early onset of menarche, rural women, utilization of packed foods or drinks and smoke-dried meat, family history of cancer, overweight and/or obesity, and women with one or fewer children were factors that increased breast cancer risk. Therefore, focusing on modifiable risk factors and increasing awareness of the community such as a healthy diet, promotion of breast self-examination, and creation of programs to increase women’s knowledge is important to reduce the increasing burden of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, risk factors, women, Ethiopia

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