Risk Factors and Clinical Significance of D-Dimer in the Development of Postoperative Venous Thrombosis in Patients with Lung Tumor
Received 8 April 2020
Accepted for publication 26 May 2020
Published 30 June 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 5169—5179
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sanjeev Srivastava
Pan Wang,1,* Honglin Zhao,1,* Qingchun Zhao,1,* Fan Ren,1 Ruifeng Shi,1 Xingyu Liu,1 Jinghao Liu,1 Hongyu Liu,2 Gang Chen,1 Jun Chen1,2
1Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor Microenvironment, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Jun Chen Email email@example.com
Background: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with postoperative VTE and explore the VTE predication capacity of D-dimer kinetics.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred patients who had lung tumor surgery were analyzed retrospectively between January 2018 and August 2019, and venous ultrasound imaging and D-dimer examination before and after surgery were recommended to all operative patients. Of these 600 patients, 523 patients had venous thromboembolism after surgery, and 77 patients had not found. The general clinical data, postoperative prophylactic anticoagulant therapy, early systemic thromboprophylaxis, 50% increment of D-dimer, 100% increment of D-dimer, and perioperative (preoperative and days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery) D-dimer levels were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factors of postoperative VTE.
Results: VTE developed in 77 (12.8%) patients. In a univariate analysis, age, surgical approach, tumor size, histology, postoperative preventive anticoagulation, postoperative limb compression therapy, postoperative hemostasis, duration of operation, early systemic thromboprophylaxis, 100% increment of D-dimer, preoperative and postoperative D-dimer level, intraoperative blood loss, and time spent in the hospital were significantly different between the thrombus group and nonthrombus group (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 60 years (P = 0.006) and D-dimer level on 5 days after surgery (P = 0.000) were significant independent risk factors for VTE. Postoperative D-dimer was significantly higher than the preoperative level (P < 0.001). Postoperative D-dimer level was significantly different between benign and malignant tumor groups (P < 0.05) and between the thrombus group and nonthrombus group (P < 0.001). Preventive anticoagulation and limb compression therapy starting from the first day after surgery was statistically significant between the thrombus group and the nonthrombus group (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Continuous detection of D-dimer level after pulmonary tumor surgery combined with thrombotic-related risk factors can better evaluate the occurrence of VTE. Preventive anticoagulant therapy and limb compression therapy starting from the first day after surgery can effectively reduce the incidence of VTE.
Keywords: anticoagulants, D-dimer, lung neoplasms, risk factors venous thromboembolism
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