Risk Factors And Clinical Outcomes Of Hospital-Acquired MRSA Infections In Chongqing, China
Authors Mao P, Peng P, Liu Z, Xue Z, Yao C
Received 17 July 2019
Accepted for publication 30 October 2019
Published 27 November 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 3709—3717
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Eric Nulens
Ping Mao,1,2,* Ping Peng,1,* Zhiyong Liu,3 Zhenrui Xue,1 Chunyan Yao1
1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sichuan Provincial Crops Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Leshan, Sichuan, 614000, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Chunyan Yao
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038, People’s Republic of China
Tel/Fax +86 23 6876 5475
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen of hospital infection with multi-drug resistant characteristics. Its spread and epidemic pose great challenges to nosocomial infection control. This study was aimed to identify risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections and investigate its clinical outcome, developing infection control strategies and improving patient outcomes.
Methods: A retrospective case-case-control study was conducted to compare patients in Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China from January 2018 to December 2018 with control patients. In this study, 251 patients with MRSA nosocomial infection, 339 patients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains (MSSA) nosocomial infection, and 300 patients with non-Staphylococcus aureus infection were included.
Results: Multivariate analysis showed that presence of central venous catheters (odds ratio [OR], 1.932; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.074–3.477; P=0.028), sputum suction (OR, 2.887; 95% CI, 1.591–5.240; p<0.001), and total hospital stays more than 30 days (OR, 3.067; 95% CI, 2.063–4.559; P<0.001) were independent risk factors for HA-MRSA. Renal insufficiency (OR, 2.744; 95% CI, 1.089–6.914; P=0.032) and receipt of immunosuppressors (OR, 3.140; 95% CI, 1.284–7.678; P=0.012) were independent predictors of poor prognosis of MRSA nosocomial infection. Moreover, empirical use of antibiotics (OR, 0.514; 95% CI, 0.282–0.935; P=0.029) was a protective factor for poor prognosis of MRSA nosocomial infection. In-hospital mortality in the MRSA group was not statistically significant compared with the other two groups; however, the rate of poor prognosis in the MRSA group was higher than that of the MSSA group (27.5% vs 17.1%, χ2=9.200, P=0.002) and the control group (27.5% vs 16.0%, χ2=19.190, P=0.001).
Conclusion: Our results have shown presence of central venous catheters, sputum suction, and total hospital stays more than 30 days were associated with nosocomial MRSA infection. Patients with renal insufficiency and immunosuppressive therapy were more likely to cause poor prognosis with MRSA infection, and the empirical use of antibiotics can effectively reduce the adverse clinical outcomes caused by MRSA infection. Based on above findings, strategies to control MRSA infection should emphasize more attention to these patients and appropriate empirical use of antibiotics.
Keywords: risk factors, clinical outcomes, HA-MRSA, MSSA
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