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Review of devices used in neuromuscular electrical stimulation for stroke rehabilitation

Authors Takeda K, Tanino G, Miyasaka H

Received 9 May 2017

Accepted for publication 22 July 2017

Published 24 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 207—213

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S123464

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Kotaro Takeda,1 Genichi Tanino,2 Hiroyuki Miyasaka1,3

1Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, 2Joint Research Support Promotion Facility, Center for Research Promotion and Support, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University Nanakuri Memorial Hospital, Tsu, Mie, Japan

Abstract: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), specifically functional electrical stimulation (FES) that compensates for voluntary motion, and therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) aimed at muscle strengthening and recovery from paralysis are widely used in stroke rehabilitation. The electrical stimulation of muscle contraction should be synchronized with intended motion to restore paralysis. Therefore, NMES devices, which monitor electromyogram (EMG) or electroencephalogram (EEG) changes with motor intention and use them as a trigger, have been developed. Devices that modify the current intensity of NMES, based on EMG or EEG, have also been proposed. Given the diversity in devices and stimulation methods of NMES, the aim of the current review was to introduce some commercial FES and TES devices and application methods, which depend on the condition of the patient with stroke, including the degree of paralysis.

Keywords: functional electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation, EMG-triggered stimulation, brain–machine interface, brain–computer interface

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