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Review: management of Parkinson's disease

Authors Pedrosa DJ, Timmermann L

Received 19 December 2012

Accepted for publication 18 January 2013

Published 3 March 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 321—340

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S32302

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4


David J Pedrosa, Lars Timmermann

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. Despite the modern imaging and nuclear techniques which help to diagnose it in a very early stage and lead to a better discrimination of similar diseases, PD has remained a clinical diagnosis. The increasing number of available treatment options makes the disease management often complicated even when the presence of PD seems undoubted. In addition, nonmotor symptoms and side effects of some therapies constitute some pitfalls already in the preclinical state or at the beginnings of the disease, especially with the progressive effect on patients. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize study results and depict recommended medical treatments for the most common motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD. Additionally, emerging new therapeutic options such as continuous pump therapies, eg, with apomorphine or parenteral levodopa, or the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation were also considered.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, disease management, side effects, nonmotor symptoms, DBS, pump therapies

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