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Retrospective Analysis of Malaria Cases in a Potentially High Endemic Area of Morogoro Rural District, Eastern Tanzania

Authors Aikambe JN, Mnyone LL

Received 19 March 2020

Accepted for publication 25 May 2020

Published 12 June 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 37—44


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Mario Rodriguez-Perez

Joseph N Aikambe,1,2 Ladslaus L Mnyone2,3

1Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 2Pest Management Centre, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 3School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Correspondence: Ladslaus L Mnyone Email

Background: Malaria is increasingly characterized by appreciable fine-scale variability in ecology and topography, and it is likely that we are missing some salient foci with unprecedented malaria transmission intensity in different parts of Tanzania. Therefore, efforts aimed at identifying area-specific malaria situation and intervening are needed to preserve the realized health gains and achieve elimination. Mkuyuni and Kiroka, adjacent wards within Morogoro Rural District, are purported to form one of such foci.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to determine six-year (2014– 2019) malaria prevalence rates based on outpatients and laboratory registers obtained from two health facilities, one per ward, carrying out diagnosis of malaria either through microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). These data were checked for completeness before carrying out statistical analysis.
Results: Overall, 35,386 (46.19%) out of 76,604 patients were positive for malaria. The average proportion of malaria cases was significantly higher in Mkuyuni (51.23%; n=19,438) than Kiroka (41.21%; n = 15,938) (P < 0.001). Females were more affected than males (P < 0.001);, and irrespective of the sex, most malaria cases were recorded in children < 5 years of age (P < 0.001) except at Mkuyuni. Malaria was recorded virtually all year round; however, the highest proportion of cases was recorded in April and July (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study revealed high malaria endemicity in Mkuyuni and Kiroka, with prevalence rate as high as 60.98%, which is far higher than the overall national average prevalence of 9%. More studies are needed in these and other putatively high endemic foci in Tanzania in order to inform the future course of action in disease surveillance and control.

Keywords: malaria, retrospective analysis, high endemic, Mkuyuni and Kiroka wards

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