Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety
Authors Siddharth Mukherjee, Abhijit Date, Vandana Patravale, Hans Christian Korting, Alexander Roeder, Günther Weindl
Published 15 January 2007 Volume 2006:1(4) Pages 327—348
Siddharth Mukherjee1, Abhijit Date2, Vandana Patravale3, Hans Christian Korting4, Alexander Roeder4, Günther Weindl5
1Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E.), Mumbai, India; 2Pharmaceutical R & D, Nicholas Piramal Research Center, Goregaon, Mumbai, India; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, University Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, India; 4Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany; 5Department of Dermatology, Eberhard Karls
University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
Abstract: Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurring due to cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Chronological and photoaging both have clinically differentiable manifestations. Various natural and synthetic retinoids have been explored for the treatment of aging and many of them have shown histological and clinical improvement, but most of the studies have been carried out in patients presenting with photoaged skin. Amongst the retinoids, tretinoin possibly is the most potent and certainly the most widely investigated retinoid for photoaging therapy. Although retinoids show promise in the treatment of skin aging, irritant reactions such as burning, scaling or dermatitis associated with retinoid therapy limit their acceptance by patients. This problem is more prominent with tretinoin and tazarotene whereas other retinoids mainly represented by retinaldehyde and retinol are considerably less irritating. In order to minimize these side effects, various novel drug delivery systems have been developed. In particular, nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoids like tretinoin and retinol. However, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids.
Keywords: photoaging, chronological aging, tretinoin, retinaldehyde, tazarotene, nanoparticles