Residual risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by blood transfusion between 2015 and 2017 at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Received 2 October 2018
Accepted for publication 18 December 2018
Published 1 February 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 53—58
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth
Arzouma Paul Yooda,1–3 Salam Sawadogo,3 Serge Théophile Soubeiga,1,2 Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah,4 Koumpingnin Nebie,3 Abdoul Karim Ouattara,1,2 Birama Diarra,1,2 Abibou Simpore,3 Yetema Dieudonné Yonli,3 Abdoul-Guaniyi Sawadogo,3 Bia Emile Drabo,3 Seimbou Zalla,3 Anita Pierrette Siritié,3 Rodrigue Sosthène Nana,3 Honorine Dahourou,3 Jacques Simpore1,2
1Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics (LaBioGene), Training and Research Unit in Life and Earth Sciences, University Ouaga I Professor Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2Pietro Annigoni Biomolecular Research Center (CERBA), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 3National Blood Transfusion Center (NBTC), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, the high endemicity of blood-borne infections is a serious threat to transfusion safety. In order to improve transfusion safety, Burkina Faso has undertaken in recent years a reorganization of its blood-transfusion system through the creation of a National Blood Transfusion Center, which is the only blood operator in the whole country. This study aimed to estimate the residual risk of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blood transfusion at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center (RBTC) of Ouagadougou.
Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the RBTC of Ouagadougou between 2015 and 2017. Prevalence of infectious markers was calculated for first-time donors and incidence rates calculated for repeat donors who had made at least two donations of blood over the study period. Residual risks were estimated for the three viruses (HIV, HBV, and HCV) by multiplying the incidence rate per 100,000 person-years by the respective durations of serological windows.
Results: Between 2015 and 2017, of a total of 84,299 blood donors, 68,391 (81.13%) were first-time donors compared to 15,908 (18.87%) repeat donors. The seroprevalence of HBV (8.56%) was twice that of HCV (4.40%) and fourfold that of HIV (1.80%). Incidence rates were 1,215, 2,601, and 1,599 per 100,000 donations for HIV, HCV, and HBV, respectively. In contrast, the estimated residual risk for HCV (1 in 213 donations) was double that of HBV (1 in 408 donations) and four times that of HIV (1 in 1,366).
Conclusion: The residual risk of transmission of these viruses by blood transfusion remains high in repeat donors. An effective donor-retention and education policy could help to reduce this residual risk.
Keywords: infectious diseases, prevalence, incidence, residual transfusion risk
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