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Reliability of clinical monitoring for the diagnosis of babesiosis in dogs in Nigeria

Authors Adebayo O, Ajadi R, Omobowale T, Omotainse S, Dipeolu M, Nottidge H, Otesile E

Received 12 January 2016

Accepted for publication 18 April 2016

Published 1 July 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 85—90


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo

Video abstract presented by Olufunke Omowunmi Adebayo

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Olufunke Omowunmi Adebayo,1 Rasheed Adetola Ajadi,2 Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale,3 Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse,4 Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu,5 Helen Oyebukola Nottidge,3 Ebenezer Babatunde Otesile2

1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 4Department of Veterinary Pathology, 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Reproduction, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Abstract: Babesiosis accounts for a high percentage of hospital cases in canines in Africa, with about 40% mortality in the cases presented. In Nigeria, records show an estimated 30% annual morbidity when diagnosis is largely based on clinical and laboratory findings. This study monitored clinical indices associated with canine babesiosis. One hundred and three babesiosis-suspected dogs were selected on the basis of clinical signs of anorexia, fever, presence of ticks, and enlarged lymph nodes or spleen when clinical parameters were recorded at the time of presentation. Parasite detection was done using thin blood smears; that is, the presence of Babesia merozoites was compared between capillary and cephalic blood. Blood was also assayed for hematology and blood chemistry using automated blood analyzers. The babesiosis-infected dogs’ outcome was monitored. Data obtained were analyzed using chi-square test, analysis of variance, and Pearson’s correlation. Results based on thin blood smears showed that 61.1% of the dogs were positive for Babesia species. Breed disposition, sex, and age did not significantly influence the incidence of Babesia canis, while mean rectal temperatures did not differ significantly between the cases (P>0.05). Heart rate and pulse rates of Babesia-positive dogs were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those that were negative. The packed cell volume between the cases was not significantly different, with the values in the positive and negative case obtained being 26.4% ±11.26% and 31.6%±11.9%, respectively, with a range of 6% to 50% and 10% to 47% observed, respectively. Normal leukogram was also observed in 62% of the Babesia-positive cases while 22.2% and 15.8% had leukocytosis and leukopenia, respectively. Most of the positive cases whose results were based on thin blood smear were treated with 5% oxytetracycline for 5 days and fully recovered. Pearson’s correlation was used to give relationship in the observed data. This study concluded that clinical indices are not reliable markers in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

Keywords: canine babesiosis, Babesia species, dogs, clinical parameters, markers

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