Back to Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 8

Relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields, multifocal electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in detecting hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine retinopathy

Authors Browning D, Lee C

Received 19 April 2014

Accepted for publication 13 May 2014

Published 25 July 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 1389—1399

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S66527

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


David J Browning, Chong Lee

Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields (10-2 VFs), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in detecting hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.
Methods: A total of 121 patients taking hydroxychloroquine (n=119) or chloroquine (n=2) with 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT tests were retrospectively reviewed. Rates of test abnormality were determined.
Results: Retinopathy was present in 14 and absent in 107. Eleven of 14 (78.6%) patients with retinopathy were overdosed. Twelve (85.7%) had cumulative dosing greater than 1,000 g. The sensitivities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 85.7%, 92.9%, and 78.6%, respectively. The specificities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 92.5%, 86.9%, and 98.1%, respectively. Positive predictive values of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were less than 30% for all estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence. Negative predictive values were >99% for all tests.
Conclusion: Based on published estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence, all three tests are most reliable when negative, allowing confident exclusion of retinopathy in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day. Each test is less useful in allowing a confident diagnosis of retinopathy when positive, especially in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day.

Keywords: hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, retinopathy, multifocal electroretinography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, ideal body weight, toxicity

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]