Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels and the risk of hypertension in Nigerian adults
Rufus A Adedoyin1, Chidozie E Mbada2, Luqman A Bisiriyu3, Rasaaq A Adebayo4, Michael O Balogun4, Anthony O Akintomide4
1Department of Medical Rehabilitation; 2Physiotherapy Department, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 3Department of Demography and Social Statistics; 4Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Background and purpose: Studies on cardiovascular risks in relation to anthropometric factors are limited in Sub-Sahara Africa. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric parameters and blood pressure; and to evaluate body mass index (BMI) across the range of underweight and obesity as a primary risk factor of hypertension in adult Nigerians.
Material and methods: 2097 adults aged between 20 and 100 years consented and participated in this door-to-door survey. All participants underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements using standard procedures. The population study was separated in normotensive and hypertensive males and females and the possible risk for hypertension were categorized into different classes of value based on BMI defi nition.
Results: The relative risks (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of developing hypertension among the obese compared with the underweight, normal weight, and overweight persons were (OR 5.75; CI 5.67–5.83), (OR 1.73; CI 1.65–1.81), and (OR 1.54; CI 1.46–1.62) for all the participants, respectively. Among obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 Kg/m2) males, the OR for hypertension was three times (OR 2.78; CI 2.76–2.80) that of normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) males. Females with obesity had a risk of hypertension three times (OR 3.34; CI 3.33–3.35) that of normal weight females.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that the there was a significant positive correlation of obesity indicator with blood pressure. In Nigeria, we found a strong gradient between higher BMI and increased risk of hypertension among all ages. Approaches to reduce the risk of hypertension may include prevention of overweight and obesity.
Keywords: body mass index, obesity, blood pressure, risk of hypertension
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