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Relationship Between sCD163 and mCD163 and Their Implication in the Detection and Typing of Leprosy

Authors Farag AGA, El Askary SA, Fathy WM, Elbassal F, Azzam AA, Tayel NR, Abdul Karim SS, Shehata WA

Received 28 November 2019

Accepted for publication 17 March 2020

Published 2 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 379—389

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S240420

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg


Azza Gaber Antar Farag,1 Shymaa A El Askary,2 Waleed M Fathy,3 Fathia Elbassal,3 Ayman Ali Azzam,4 Nermin Reda Tayel,5 Samah Saad Abdul Karim,6 Wafaa Ahmed Shehata1

1Dermatology, Andrology & STDs Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Al Menoufia, Egypt; 2Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Minufya, Egypt; 3Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Minufya, Egypt; 4Clinical Biochemistry Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Minufya, Egypt; 5Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Genetic Engineering Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat City, Egypt; 6Dermatology Department, Shebin ElKom Teaching Hospital, Minufya, Egypt

Correspondence: Azza Gaber Antar Farag
Dermatology, Andrology & STDs Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin ElKom, Al Menoufia 32511, Egypt
Tel +20 109 778 7204
Fax +20 2482 226 454
Email azzagaber92@yahoo.com

Background: Leprosy is a chronic contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium lepraea. CD163 is a monocyte trans-membrane glycoprotein receptor (mCD163) that sheds from the cell surface and circulates as a soluble (serum) form (sCD163). Changes in the mCD163 and sCD163 levels could mirror the categorization of inflammatory procedure, demonstrating a possible use of CD163 as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation.
Objective: To investigate the possible role of CD163 (sCD163 and mCD163) in leprosy pathogenesis and to assess whether CD163 is a helpful inflammatory marker of leprosy development and typing.
Patients and Methods: This case control study included 70 leprosy patients and 30 healthy controls. Leprosy patients were classified according to the Madrid criteria (1953) into: tuberculoid leprosy (TT), border-line leprosy (BL), and lepromatous leprosy (LL). For all participants, complete blood count (CBC), serum CD163 using ELISA and monocytes positive for CD163 using flow cytometry were done.
Results: Leprosy patients had significantly low WBCs and platelet counts (p< 0.001) and had significantly higher sCD163 (p=0.025) and mCD163 (p=0.042) that were highest in LL followed by BL, then TT patients (p< 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between mCD163 and sCD163 levels in leprosy patients (r=0.896, p< 0.001). ROC analysis revealed a significant role of serum sCD163 and of mCD163 positive monocytes in the detection (p< 0.001) and typing of leprosy (p=0.002 and p< 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Both sCD163 and mCD163 positive monocytes may have an active role in leprosy pathogenesis. They could be potential biomarkers for leprosy detection and typing.

Keywords: CD163 positive monocytes, flow cytometry, leprosy, sCD163

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