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Relationship between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome: current perspectives

Authors Nashar K, Egan BM

Received 25 March 2014

Accepted for publication 10 June 2014

Published 18 September 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 421—435

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S45183

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4


Khaled Nashar,1 Brent M Egan2

1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Care Coordination Institute and Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC, USA

Abstract: Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing in incidence and lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between these two entities is complex. Individual components of the MetS are known risk factors for incident kidney disease, but it is not clear how the clustering of these components is linked to the development and progression of kidney disease. Cross-sectional studies show an association of the MetS and prevalent CKD; however, one cannot draw conclusions as to which came first – the MetS or the kidney disease. Observational studies suggest a relationship between MetS and incident CKD, but they also demonstrate the development of MetS in patients with established CKD. These observations suggest a bidirectional relationship. A better understanding of the relationship between components of the MetS and whether and how these components contribute to progression of CKD and incident cardiovascular disease could inform more effective prevention strategies.

Keywords: obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, oxdative stress, inflammation, adipokines
 

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