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Reduction in cancer risk by selective and nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors

Authors Harris R, Beebe, Alshafie

Received 31 May 2012

Accepted for publication 14 July 2012

Published 13 August 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 91—96

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S23826

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2


Randall E Harris,1 Joanne Beebe,1 Galal A Alshafie2

1College of Medicine and College of Public Health, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Abstract: We conducted a series of epidemiologic studies to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aspirin, ibuprofen, and selective cyxlooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) against cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and lung. Composite results across all four cancer sites revealed that regular intake of 325 mg aspirin, 200 mg ibuprofen, or standard dosages of coxibs (200 mg celecoxib or 25 mg rofecoxib) produced risk reductions of 49%, 59%, and 64%, respectively. Use of coxibs for at least 2 years was associated with risk reductions of 71%, 70%, 55%, and 60% for breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer, respectively. Effects of ibuprofen were similar to selective coxibs, and slightly stronger than aspirin. These observed effects are consistent with the relative COX-2 selectivity of ibuprofen, coxibs, and aspirin. Acetaminophen, an analgesic without COX-2 activity, had no effect. Overexpression of COX-2 and increased prostaglandin biosynthesis correlates with carcinogenesis and metastasis at most anatomic sites. These results indicate that regular intake of nonselective or selective COX-2 inhibiting agents protects against the development of major forms of cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, chemoprevention

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