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Recurrent ruptured abdominal aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa successfully treated with infliximab

Authors Lerkvaleekul B, Treepongkaruna S, Ruangwattanapaisarn N, Treesit T, Vilaiyuk S

Received 10 February 2019

Accepted for publication 9 May 2019

Published 14 June 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 111—116

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/BTT.S204726

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Doris Benbrook


Butsabong Lerkvaleekul,1 Suporn Treepongkaruna,2 Nichanan Ruangwattanapaisarn,3 Tharintorn Treesit,3 Soamarat Vilaiyuk1

1Division of Rheumatology, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract: Systemic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare form of necrotizing vasculitis in children. Recurrent episodes of abdominal aneurysm ruptures are uncommon and life-threatening condition in children. Failures of response to immunosuppressive medications and radiological intervention also lead to high mortality. Some reports suggested that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) might have role in the inflammation of this disease. After an English-language literature review, this is the first case report in children of recurrent abdominal-ruptured aneurysms with a failure of conventional therapy but successfully treated with anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody. We herein describe a 9-year-old girl who presented with chronic abdominal pain, hypertension, and massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The disease was refractory to conventional treatment, including administration of a corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and recurrent-ruptured aneurysms developed in the gastrointestinal tract. Arterial embolization during angiography resulted in temporary improvement of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Infliximab, a chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody, was initiated and resulted in disease remission with resolution of the gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain. Anti-TNF therapy might be another treatment option for refractory disease to prevent ongoing inflammation that could lead to aneurysmal dilatation or even rupture. However, early recognition of refractory disease and aggressive treatment in the early course of the disease are crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: vasculitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, tumor necrosis factor, infliximab, biologic therapy
 

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