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Recent Advances in Our Knowledge of mCRC Tumor Biology and Genetics: A Focus on Targeted Therapy Development

Authors Gmeiner WH

Received 12 January 2021

Accepted for publication 11 March 2021

Published 25 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 2121—2130


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Alberto Bongiovanni

William H Gmeiner

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Correspondence: William H Gmeiner Tel +1 336-716-6216
Fax +1 336-716-0255
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains a highly lethal malignancy although considerable progress has resulted from characterizing molecular alterations such as RAS mutation status and extent of microsatellite instability (MSI) to guide optimal use of available therapies. The availability of gene expression profiling, next generation sequencing technologies, proteomics analysis and other technologies provides high resolution information on individual tumors, including metastatic lesions to better define intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Recent literature applying this information to further customize personalized therapies is reviewed. Current biomarker-based stratification used to select optimal therapy that is personalized to the mutation profile of individual tumors is described. Recent literature using whole exome sequencing of metastatic lesions and primary CRC tumors and other advanced technologies to more fully elucidate the tumor biology specific to mCRC sub-types and to develop more precise therapies that improve outcomes is also reviewed.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, metastasis, mutation, whole exome sequencing, targeted therapy

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