Real-world analysis of cost, health care resource utilization, and supportive care in Hodgkin lymphoma patients with frontline failure
Received 29 June 2018
Accepted for publication 27 August 2018
Published 17 October 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 629—641
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Samer Hamidi
Machaon Bonafede,1 Joseph Feliciano,2 Qian Cai,1 Virginia Noxon,1 Nicole Princic,1 Akshara Richhariya,2 David J Straus3,4
1IBM Watson Health, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Seattle Genetics, Inc., Bothell, WA, USA; 3Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 4John P Leonard Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic burden of frontline failure (FLF) among classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients during and after treatment.
Patients and methods: The population consisted of adult HL patients identified from January 2010 through September 2015 without any other primary cancer prior to HL diagnosis, who also had a frontline (FL) regimen indicative of curative intent. Patients were characterized as FLF (those who restart, switch to any chemotherapy; had a hematopoietic stem cell transplant; or newly initiated radiation therapy [RT] after discontinuing FL) or non-FLF (those not considered as FLF). Direct health care utilization and expenditures were measured over both fixed and variable length follow-up periods and during FL therapy.
Results: There were 77 FLF and 602 non-FLF patients who met the final inclusion criteria. FLF and non-FLF patients were demographically similar with mean age 38.5 years and 47.5% females. Average per patient per month (PPPM) costs were significantly higher for FLF patients during all follow-up (US$20,266 vs US$7,772, P<0.05). Annual total expenditures were significantly higher among FLF patients (US$198,388) vs non-FLF patients (US$37,549). FLF (vs non-FLF) patients had a significantly shorter duration of FL therapy (116 vs 131 days, P=0.024) and higher total PPPM expenditures during FL (US$29,040 vs US$16,369, P<0.05). Annual cost varied by failure type with those who failed due to restart incurring the highest cost (US$269,189) and those who switched incurring the lowest cost (US$46,951). FLF patients had a significantly greater utilization in every health care resource category during follow-up.
Conclusion: FLF (vs non-FLF) patients utilized substantially more health care resources and incurred a substantially higher economic burden. Over 5 years, FLF patients with at least two lines of treatment were projected to incur US$535,846 of health care costs. Further research is needed to determine optimal treatment that could reduce the risk of progression, need for treatment after FL, and enhance long-term clinical and economic outcomes.
Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, health care outcomes, treatment failure, administrative claims database, retrospective analysis
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