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Real Life Experience of Dexamethasone Implant in Refractory Diabetic Macular Oedema

Authors Karttunen T, Nummelin L, Kaarniranta K, Kinnunen K

Received 30 September 2019

Accepted for publication 5 December 2019

Published 27 December 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 2583—2590


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Tommi Karttunen,1 Lasse Nummelin,2 Kai Kaarniranta,1,2 Kati Kinnunen1,2

1Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Correspondence: Tommi Karttunen
Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie 2, Kuopio 70210, Finland
Tel +358 44 717 9582

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the efficacy of dexamethasone implant in refractory diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in real life settings.
Methods: In all, 24 eyes of 22 patients that required treatment with single or multiple intravitreal dexamethasone implants for refractory DMO were included in the study. Patients having macular oedema for another retinal disease were excluded from the study. The patient data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. As a demographic data age, gender, the type of diabetes and the duration of DMO were collected. Changes in central foveal thickness and the number of hyper reflective spots (HRS) were analyzed with Heidelberg SD-OCT. Furthermore, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and changes in the intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured.
Results: In all, 50.0% of the eyes with baseline BCVA 0.45 (±2.4) lines in ETDRS LogMAR scale received only one implant during the follow-up of 332 (±79) days. At the end of the follow-up, BCVA was 0.26 (±2.0) lines. The other 50.0% of the eyes with baseline BCVA 0.64 (±3.0) lines received the second implant in 156 (±38) days. Central retinal thickness (CRT) at baseline was 333 (±44) μm in the eyes with only one implant and 497 (±125) μm in the eyes with 2 or more implants. IOP lowering medication was needed for 8.3% of the eyes. The decrease in the number of HRS was significant (8±17, p=0.048) in response to dexamethasone implantation.
Conclusion: The dexamethasone implant is a useful treatment in refractory DMO and HRS seen in the OCT might indicate inflammation in the retina.

Keywords: diabetic macular oedema, DMO, dexamethasone implant, hyper reflective spots, HRS, optical coherence tomography, OCT

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