Randomized comparison of effectiveness of unimodal opioid analgesia with multimodal analgesia in post–cesarean section pain management
Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,1 Oluseyi Olaboyede A Atanda2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Background: Postoperative pain leads to patient discomfort, decreased level of satisfaction, prolonged recovery, and higher health costs. Acute pain control therefore improves the overall quality of life in patients undergoing cesarean section. Pain relief is a fundamental human right, but there is no gold standard for post–cesarean section pain management.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of pentazocine and tramadol used in unimodal and multimodal (in combination with piroxicam) approach, in the management of post–cesarean section pain.
Materials and methods: This study employed a random allocation design to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular pentazocine (60 mg) or tramadol (100 mg) as single analgesic agent and in combination with daily intramuscular piroxicam 20 mg, for the management of post–cesarean section pain during the immediate 12 hours after surgery. The primary outcome measure was control of postoperative pain, while the secondary outcome measures were the analgesic agent onset of action, duration of action, patient satisfaction, and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Data obtained were entered into a predesigned sheet and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Means ± standard deviation (SD) were calculated for the quantitative variables, and the difference between two independent groups was compared using unpaired Student's t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05.
Results: A total of 120 patients were equally and randomly allocated to four study groups – two that received unimodal analgesia (the pentazocine group and the tramadol group) and two that received multimodal analgesia (the pentazocine-piroxicam group and the tramadol-piroxicam group). Among the unimodal groups, tramadol had a faster onset of action, but pentazocine had a longer duration of action and provided better control of pain. Among the multimodal groups, the combination of pentazocine with piroxicam was superior to the tramadol with piroxicam combination, and it was also more effective than pentazocine alone.
Conclusion: The multimodal approach of combining pentazocine with piroxicam is a safe, effective, and an acceptable mode of analgesia for post–cesarean section pain management, especially in a resource-constrained setting.
Keyword: NSAID, opiods, piroxicam, tramadol, pentazocine
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