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RAI1 gene mutations: mechanisms of Smith–Magenis Syndrome

Authors Falco M, Amabile S, Acquaviva F

Received 7 July 2017

Accepted for publication 21 September 2017

Published 3 November 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 85—94

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S128455

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Martin H. Maurer


Mariateresa Falco,1,* Sonia Amabile,1,* Fabio Acquaviva2

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Translational Medical Sciences (DISMET), Section of Pediatric Clinical Genetics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1), or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642) is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species. Over the years, several studies have demonstrated that RAI1 (or its homologs in animal models) acts as a transcriptional factor implicated in embryonic neurodevelopment, neuronal differentiation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucose metabolisms, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. Patients with RAI1 pathogenic variants show some phenotypic differences when compared to those carrying the typical deletion. They usually have lower incidence of hypotonia and less cognitive impairment than those with 17p11.2 deletions but more frequently show the behavioral characteristics of the syndrome and overeating issues. These differences reflect the primary pathogenetic role of RAI1 without the pathogenetic contribution of the other genes included in the typical 17p11.2 deletion. The better comprehension of physiological roles of RAI1, its molecular co-workers and interactors, and its contribution in determining the typical SMS phenotype will certainly open a new path for therapeutic interventions.

Keywords: 17p11.2, neurogenesis, sleep disorders, syndromic obesity, craniofacial abnormalities
 

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