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Radiosensitization Effects by Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles in Combination with Cisplatin for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Authors Sisin NNT, Abdul Razak K, Zainal Abidin S, Che Mat NF, Abdullah R, Ab Rashid R, Khairil Anuar MA, Mohd Zainudin NH, Tagiling N, Mat Nawi N, Rahman WN

Received 27 August 2019

Accepted for publication 22 October 2019

Published 18 December 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 9941—9954


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Phong A Tran

Noor Nabilah Talik Sisin,1 Khairunisak Abdul Razak,2 Safri Zainal Abidin,3 Nor Fazila Che Mat,1 Reduan Abdullah,1,4 Raizulnasuha Ab Rashid,1 Muhammad Afiq Khairil Anuar,1 Nur Hamizah Mohd Zainudin,1 Nashrulhaq Tagiling,1 Norazlina Mat Nawi,5 Wan Nordiana Rahman1

1School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia; 3Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Penang, Malaysia; 4Hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 5School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Correspondence: Wan Nordiana Rahman
School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
Tel +60 97677811

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the synergetic triple therapeutic combination encompassing bismuth oxide nanoparticles (BiONPs), cisplatin (Cis), and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 source in breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell line.
Methods: In vitro models of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and normal fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were employed. Cellular localization and cytotoxicity studies were conducted prior to inspection on the radiosensitization effects and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on three proposed radiosensitizers: BiONPs, Cis, and BiONPs-Cis combination (BC). The optimal, non-cytotoxic concentration of BiONPs (0.5 mM) and the 25% inhibitory concentration of Cis (1.30 μM) were applied. The radiosensitization effects were evaluated by using a 0.38 MeV Iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy source over a prescribed dose range of 0 Gy to 4 Gy.
Results: The cellular localization of BiONPs was visualized by light microscopy and accumulation of the BiONPs within the vicinity of the nuclear membrane was observed. Quantification of the sensitization enhancement ratio extrapolated from the survival curves indicates radiosensitization effects for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 when treated with BiONPs, Cis, and BC. However, NIH/3T3 cells exhibited contradictive behavior as it only reacted towards the BC combination. Nonetheless, the MCF-7 cell line loaded with BC shows the highest SER of 4.29. ROS production analysis, on the other hand, shows that Cis and BC radiosensitizers generated the highest free radicals in comparison to BiONPs alone.
Conclusion: A BiONPs-Cis combination was unveiled as a novel approach that offers promising radiosensitization enhancement that will increase the efficiency of tumor control while preserving the normal tissue at a reduced dose. This data is the first precedent to prove the synergetic implication of BiONPs, Cis, and HDR brachytherapy that will be beneficial for future chemoradiotherapy strategies in cancer care.

Keywords: HDR brachytherapy, bismuth oxide nanoparticles, radiosensitization, cisplatin, chemoradiotherapy

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