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Quizartinib (AC220): a promising option for acute myeloid leukemia

Authors Zhou F, Ge Z, Chen B

Received 20 December 2018

Accepted for publication 4 March 2019

Published 8 April 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1117—1125


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Georgios D. Panos

Fang Zhou, Zheng Ge, Baoan Chen

Department of Hematology and Oncology (Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine), Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Quizartinib is an effective therapy for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by continuing to inhibit the activity of FLT3 gene, leading to apoptosis of tumor cells. Multiple clinical trials have proved that it is effective in relapsed or refractory AML with an FLT3-ITD mutation. In this review, we focus on the characteristics of FLT3/ITD mutations, the mechanism and pharmacokinetics of quizartinib, and the mechanisms of resistance to quizartinib. We also summarize clinical experiences and adverse effects with quizartinib and recommend crucial approaches of quizartinib in the therapy of patients with newly diagnosed AML and patients with relapsed/refractory AML, particularly those with FLT3-ITD mutation. Quizartinib presents its advantages as a very promising agent in the treatment of AML, especially in patients with FLT3-ITD mutations. FLT3/ITD mutation can lead to constitutive autophosphorylation of FLT3 and activation of its downstream effectors including RAS/RAF/MEK, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK/STAT5 signal pathways, while Quizartinib can inhibit these downstream pathways through specific FLT3 inhibition. Quizartinib has received US Food and Drug Administration breakthrough therapy designation in patients with relapsed/refractory FLT3-ITD AML based on clinical trials. A larger sample of clinical trials are needed to verify its safety and efficacy, and the efficacy of quizartinib combined with chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should also be estimated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, for the side effects of quizartinib, further studies are needed to find a way to reduce its toxicity.

Keywords: quizartinib, FLT3 inhibitor, FLT3-ITD mutation, AML, clinical trials, targeted therapy

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