Qingxin kaiqiao fang ameliorates memory impairment and inhibits apoptosis in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice through the MAPK pathway
Received 24 September 2018
Accepted for publication 18 December 2018
Published 23 January 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 459—475
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Jianbo Sun
Shiyu Gao,1,2 Jianwei Lin,1,2 Tianqi Wang,1,2 Yan Shen,1,2 Yan Li,1,2 Wenyu Yang,1,2 Kailiang Zhou,2–4 Haiyan Hu1,2
1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, China; 2The Second Clinical Medical College of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325003, China; 3Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Orthopaedics, Wenzhou 325027, China; 4Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, China
Background: Qingxin kaiqiao fang (QKF) has been found to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through apoptosis inhibition. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is closely related to apoptosis in the course of AD. This study aimed to investigate whether QKF-induced apoptosis depression is achieved through MAPK pathway.
Materials and methods: C57BL/6 J and APP/PS1 mice were used as control and model groups. APP/PS1 mice were treated with different dosages of QKF (4.75, 9.5, and 19 g·kg-1·d-1·ig, respectively) for 12 weeks as L-QKF, M-QKF, and H-QKF groups. The M-QKF-treated APP/PS1 mice were administrated with 2 µg/kg of U46619 and saline, intra ventricular ventricle injection, as M-QKF+U46619 and M-QKF+saline groups and were injected with PD98059 0.3 mg/kg and the same volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), intravenous, as M-QKF+PD98059 and M-QKF+DMSO groups. After 12 weeks treatment, Morris water maze was performed for behavior study. Pathological degeneration was examined by H&E staining, Nissl staining, and transmission electron microscope observation of hippocampus; immunohistochemistry and Western blot (WB) were tested for amyloid β (Aβ) expression. Apoptosis was measured through TUNEL assay; Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 expression through WB; and cleaved caspase-3 expression through ELISA. MAPK pathway was detected via WB for the expressions of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK and their phosphorylation patterns.
Results: QKF improved the learning and memory capability, as well as inhibited neuronal apoptosis and then reduced the pathological degeneration of APP/PS1 mice. M-QKF reduced neuron apoptosis by inhibiting p38 MAPK and activating ERK1/2 but had no significant effect on JNK.
Conclusion: QKF, especially at the middle dose, alleviated the learning and memory impairment and played an antiapoptotic role in AD through MAPK pathways.
Keywords: Qingxin kaiqiao, Alzheimer’s disease, apoptosis, APP, PS1 mice, MAPK
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