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Purposeful Review to Identify Risk Factors, Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Treatment and Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology

Authors Abdissa D

Received 25 September 2020

Accepted for publication 30 November 2020

Published 14 December 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 367—377


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Daba Abdissa

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medical Science, Institute of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Daba Abdissa
Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Email [email protected]

Abstract: The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has risen, and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) contributes considerably to the national burden of CKD. It is characterized by irreversible, slowly advancing disease, and symptoms often appear in the late stages of the disease. It is a serious, novel cause of kidney failure and leads to premature deaths. Many hypotheses have emerged; however, the etiology of CKDu continues to be elusive and debatable and it is claimed that the etiology is multifactorial, encompassing environmental, genetic, occupational, and social factors. The dominant histopathological feature is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. It predominantly affects individuals with low socio-economic status, of working age, largely without chronic comorbidities, who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions in various tropical areas of the world. It is often fatal due to fast progression and limited access to dialysis or transplant options in the involved geographic areas. Early recognition and appropriate interventions at the earliest possible stage are imperative for decreasing its associated morbidity and mortality. In this review, I tried to summarize available evidence on the risk factors, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of CKDu. The literature search for this review was conducted comprehensively by using different electronic databases and by using appropriate search terms.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology, review, risk factors

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