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Pulmonary Function Tests and Their Associated Factors Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients at Jimma Medical Center, in 2019; Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Tesema DG, Gobena T, Ayalew A

Received 13 February 2020

Accepted for publication 18 March 2020

Published 8 April 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 111—119

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S249683

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Dereje Gemeda Tesema,1 Teshome Gobena,2 Almaz Ayalew2

1Mettu University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Mettu, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, Institute of Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Almaz Ayalew
Jimma University, Institute of Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia
Tel +251 17239525
Email almiay2005@gmail.com

Background: The presence of widespread lung microvascular circulation and abundant connective tissue with a large reserve raises the possibility that the lung may be a target organ of the pathologic processes induced by type 2 diabetes. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are noninvasive medical tests that show how well the lungs are working.
Objective: The aim was to compare pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and their associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetics at Jimma Medical Center (JMC).
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at JMC, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia among 298 study participants from April 1 to May 30, 2019. A face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire was conducted. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory flow (FEF25− 75) were recorded by using a digital Spirometer. Independent samples t-test, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were used.
Results: The present study indicated that means of the PFTs among type 2 diabetics were significantly reduced when compared to their matched non-diabetics (FVC (%) (m=73.7± 13.8 vs m=93.8± 12.3), FEV1 (%) (m=76.4± 13.4 vs m=93.3± 12.4), FEV1/FVC (%) (m=78.99± 11.4 vs m=96.6± 9.33), PEF (L/s) (m=3.91± 0.28 vs m=5.03± 0.35), and FEF25– 75 (L/s) (m=2.89± 0.75 vs m=3.39± 0.82)). This study also indicated that body mass index (BMI) (β=− 1.93, P< 0.001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (β=− 0.22, P< 0.001) were negative predictors of FVC%. BMI (β=− 1.93, P< 0.001) and FBS (β=− 0.29, P< 0.001) were negative predictors of FEV1%. BMI (β=− 1.403, P< 0.001) was a negative predictor of mean FEV1/FVC. BMI (β=− 1.39 P< 0.001) and FBS (β=− 0.15, P< 0.001) were negative predictors of mean PEF (L/s). BMI (β=− 0.075, P< 0.001) and FBS (β=− 0.075, P< 0.001) were negative predictors of FEF25– 75 (L/s).
Conclusion: The present study showed that there were significantly reduced mean scores of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, and FEF25– 75 among type 2 diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic participants. The FBS and BMI were independent risk factors of the PFTs among the diabetics, unlike among non-diabetic participants.

Keywords: type 2 DM, PFTs, associated factors, Jimma Medical Center

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